In this informative article, “Bunions on Feet: Understanding and Alleviating Discomfort,” we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for bunions. Led by board-certified Dr. Lauren Dabakaroff, LMD Podiatry is dedicated to providing advanced foot and ankle care. With a focus on surgical and non-surgical solutions, Dr. Dabakaroff utilizes state-of-the-art diagnostics and offers same-day appointments in a friendly environment. By prioritizing your foot health, we aim to alleviate the discomfort caused by bunions and improve your overall quality of life.

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What are bunions?


Bunions are bony protrusions that form on the joint at the base of the big toe. They occur when the big toe pushes against the adjacent toe, causing the joint to stick out and become misaligned. This misalignment can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty walking.


The exact cause of bunions is not fully understood, but several factors can contribute to their development. One common cause is wearing tight or narrow shoes that squeeze the toes together, putting pressure on the joint. People with flat feet or low arches may also be more prone to developing bunions, as the foot structure can put excess pressure on the joint. In some cases, bunions may be hereditary and passed down through generations.


The most noticeable symptom of a bunion is the visible bump on the side of the foot. However, there are several other symptoms that may accompany bunions. These can include pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness around the affected joint. Some individuals may also experience limited movement in the big toe or the development of corns or calluses on the bump.

Diagnosing bunions

Physical examination

To diagnose bunions, a healthcare professional will conduct a physical examination of the affected foot. They will observe the appearance of the bump, assess the range of motion in the toe joint, and inquire about any accompanying symptoms or discomfort. This examination helps the podiatrist determine the severity of the bunion and develop an appropriate treatment plan.


In some cases, X-rays may be necessary to further evaluate the bunion. X-rays can provide a detailed image of the bones in the foot, allowing the podiatrist to assess the degree of misalignment and determine the best course of treatment. X-rays can also help rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Other diagnostic tests

In rare cases where the diagnosis is unclear or there are unusual symptoms, a podiatrist may order additional diagnostic tests such as MRI or CT scans. These tests provide a more detailed view of the foot’s structure and can help identify any underlying issues that may be contributing to the development of bunions.

Treatment options for bunions

Non-surgical treatments

In many cases, non-surgical treatments can help alleviate the pain and discomfort associated with bunions. These options are usually recommended as the initial course of action before considering surgery. Non-surgical treatments may include:

Wearing proper footwear

One of the most important steps in managing bunions is wearing appropriate footwear. Opt for shoes that have a wide toe box, allowing the toes to have enough room to move freely. Avoid narrow or tight shoes that can exacerbate the condition and put pressure on the bunion.

Padding and taping

Using protective padding or tape can provide cushioning and support for the bunion, reducing friction and pressure. This can help alleviate pain and discomfort, especially when wearing shoes.

Orthotic devices

Custom orthotic devices, such as shoe inserts or arch supports, can help alleviate pressure on the bunion and provide additional support to the foot. These devices can help distribute weight more evenly and reduce the strain on the joint.

Physical therapy

Certain stretching and strengthening exercises prescribed by a physical therapist can help improve the flexibility and strength of the muscles and ligaments in the foot. This can provide better stability and support for the affected joint.


Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help reduce pain and inflammation associated with bunions. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Surgical options

If non-surgical treatments do not provide sufficient relief or the bunion is causing severe pain and interfering with daily activities, surgery may be considered. There are several surgical options available for treating bunions, and the choice depends on the severity of the condition and the individual’s specific needs.


A bunionectomy involves removing the bunion and realigning the affected joint. This procedure may be recommended for mild to moderate bunions.


In cases where the misalignment of the joint is more severe, an osteotomy may be performed. This procedure involves cutting and repositioning the bone to correct the alignment.


Arthrodesis, also known as fusion, may be considered for advanced bunions or when other surgical options are not suitable. The procedure involves fusing the affected joint to prevent movement and reduce pain.

Recovery and follow-up

After surgery, the recovery period varies depending on the type of procedure performed. It is common to experience some pain and swelling initially, but with proper care and follow-up appointments with the podiatrist, the foot should gradually heal. The doctor may recommend physical therapy and the use of supportive devices, such as a surgical shoe or crutches, during the recovery period.

Preventing bunions

Choosing proper footwear

Wearing properly fitted shoes that provide ample space for the toes is crucial in preventing the development or progression of bunions. Opt for shoes with a wide toe box and avoid high heels or narrow shoes that can squeeze the toes together.

Maintaining a healthy weight

Excess weight can put additional strain on the feet and aggravate existing foot conditions, including bunions. Maintaining a healthy weight can help reduce the pressure on the joints and minimize the risk of developing bunions or worsening their severity.

Exercising and stretching

Regular exercise and stretching can help keep the feet and toes flexible and strengthen the muscles and ligaments. Incorporate exercises that focus on toe and foot mobility into your routine to improve foot health and prevent bunion formation.

Foot care routine

Developing a foot care routine that includes regular washing, moisturizing, and inspecting your feet can help identify any early signs of bunions or other foot problems. Prompt attention to any abnormalities can prevent further progression of the condition.

Managing bunion discomfort

Applying ice or cold therapy

When experiencing pain or swelling from bunions, applying ice or cold compresses can help reduce inflammation and provide temporary relief. Wrap the ice pack in a cloth and apply it to the affected area for around 15 minutes at a time, several times a day.

Using over-the-counter pain relievers

Over-the-counter pain relievers can help alleviate pain associated with bunions. However, it is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Applying bunion pads or cushions

Bunion pads or cushions can be placed over the bunion to provide protection and cushioning. These can help reduce friction and pressure on the bunion and alleviate discomfort, especially when wearing shoes.

Foot massage and stretching exercises

Gentle foot massage and stretching exercises can help improve blood circulation, reduce tension in the muscles, and alleviate foot pain. Consult with a physical therapist or a healthcare professional for specific exercises that are suitable for your condition.

When to see a podiatrist

Persistent pain

If you experience persistent pain in your foot, especially around the bunion area, it is important to seek professional help. A podiatrist can evaluate the condition, determine the underlying cause of the pain, and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Difficulty walking or performing daily activities

If your bunion is causing difficulty in walking or performing your regular daily activities, it is advisable to consult with a podiatrist. They can assess the severity of the condition and recommend interventions to alleviate the pain and improve mobility.

Changes in foot appearance

If you notice any changes in the appearance of your foot, such as increasing bunion size, redness, swelling, or the development of corns or calluses, it is essential to have it evaluated by a podiatrist. These changes may indicate the progression of the bunion and the need for professional intervention.

Worsening symptoms

If your bunion symptoms worsen despite non-surgical treatments or if you experience new and severe symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. A podiatrist can assess the condition, provide an accurate diagnosis, and recommend appropriate treatment options.

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Choosing the right podiatrist

Qualifications and training

When selecting a podiatrist for your bunion treatment, it is essential to consider their qualifications and training. Look for a podiatrist who is board-certified and has completed relevant education and training in foot and ankle conditions.

Experience and expertise

Consider the podiatrist’s experience and expertise in treating bunions specifically. Ask about their success rates, patient outcomes, and any specialized techniques or technologies they utilize in their practice. An experienced podiatrist will be able to offer a comprehensive treatment plan tailored to your specific needs.

Patient reviews and testimonials

Reading patient reviews and testimonials can provide valuable insights into the quality of a podiatrist’s services. Look for reviews that focus on their expertise, communication skills, and patient satisfaction. Positive feedback from previous patients can give you confidence in selecting the right podiatrist.


Bunions can cause pain, discomfort, and interfere with daily activities. It is important to understand the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options to manage this condition effectively. Non-surgical treatments, such as wearing proper footwear, padding, and physical therapy, can provide relief for mild to moderate bunions. In more severe cases, surgical options like bunionectomy or arthrodesis may be necessary. Preventive measures, such as maintaining a healthy weight and choosing appropriate footwear, can help minimize the risk of developing bunions. If you experience persistent pain or worsening symptoms, it is crucial to seek professional help from a qualified podiatrist. By choosing the right podiatrist with the necessary qualifications, experience, and positive patient reviews, you can ensure that you receive the best possible care for your bunions. Seeking professional help is essential to alleviate discomfort and enhance your overall foot health.

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